Sydor M., Majka J., Langová N. (2021). Effective Diameters of Drilled Holes in Pinewood in Response to Changes in Relative Humidity. BioResources 16(3), 5407-5421.
Wood swelling and shrinkage affect the cooperation among the elements of furniture and should be considered during design. This study investigated the influence of moisture changes to the effective diameter of holes drilled in narrow and in wide sides of pine blanks. The moisture content (MC) of all samples has been averaged to 11.3-11.8% (air-conditioning for 4 month with RH = 60 ± 1% and t = 20 ± 1 °C). The 12 mm holes were drilled in radial and tangential directions of the samples. The MC in half of the samples was increased to 17.4-17.9% (air-conditioning for 6 months with RH = 85% and t = 20 ± 1 °C), and the MC in the second half of the samples was decreased to 8.2% (air-conditioning for six months with RH = 35% and t = 20 ± 1 °C). There were nonuniform changes in MC of the samples. Air with RH = 85% increased the MC by 6%, air with RH = 35% decreased the MC by 3%. The effective diameters of the holes were more sensitive to a decrease in air RH than to an increase the air RH. The swelling changes of wood significantly reduced the effective hole diameter, while adsorption shrinkage changes in wood only slightly increased the effective diameters of the holes. The pine blanks swell and shrink asymmetrically, but the changes in the effective diameter of the holes are not correlated with these phenomena. They also have a different form for holes drilled in radial and tangential directions.
Keywords: wood moisture, swelling, shrinkage, Scots pine, engineering fit, sorption hysteresis, drilled holes, plug gauge