Sydor M., Majka J., Rychlik M., Turbański W. (2023). Application of 3D Scanning Method to Assess Mounting Holes’ Shape Instability of Pinewood. Materials 16(5):2053.
Swelling and shrinkage anisotropy affect the susceptibility to an assembly of wooden elements by changing designed clearances or interference fits. This work described the new method to measure mounting holes’ moisture-induced shape instability and its verification using three sets of twin samples made of Scots pinewood. Each set of samples contained a pair with different grain patterns. All samples were conditioned under reference conditions (relative air humidity–RH = 60% and temperature 20 °C), and their moisture content (MC) reached equilibrium (10.7 ± 0.1%). On the side of each sample, the seven mounting holes of 12 mm in diameter were drilled. Immediately after drilling, Set 1 was used to measure the effective hole diameter with 15 cylindrical plug-gauges with diameters of 0.05 mm step, while Set 2 and Set 3 were separately re-seasoned by six months in two extreme conditions. Set 2 was conditioned with air at 85% RH (reached an equilibrium MC of 16.6 ± 0.5%), while Set 3 was exposed to air at 35% RH (reached an equilibrium MC of 7.6 ± 0.1%). Results of the plug gauge tests highlighted that holes in the samples subjected to swelling (Set 2) increased an effective diameter in the range of 12.2–12.3 mm (1.7–2.5%), while samples subjected to shrinking (Set 3) reduced the effective diameter to 11.9–11.95 mm (0.8–0.4%). To accurately reproduce the complex shape of the deformation, gypsum casts of holes were made. The 3D optical scanning method was used to read the gypsum casts’ shape and dimensions. The 3D surface map of deviations analysis provided more detailed information than the plug-gauge test results. Both the shrinking and swelling of the samples changed the shapes and sizes of the holes, but shrinking reduced the effective diameter of the hole more than swelling increased it. The moisture-induced changes in the shape of holes are complex: the holes ovalized with a different range, depending on the wood grain pattern and hole depth, and were slightly extended in diameter at the bottom. Our study provides a new way to measure 3D hole initial shape changes in wooden elements during desorption and absorption.
Keywords: Scots pine; drilling; swelling; shrinkage anisotropy; effective diameter; plug gauge method; synthetic gypsum cast; optical laser scanner; 3D scanning; furniture assembly