Mleczek M., Budka A., Siwulski M., Budzyńska S., Kalač P., Karolewski Z., Lisiak-Zielińska M., Kuczyńska-Kippen N., Niedzielski P. (2021). Anthropogenic contamination leads to changes in mineral composition of soil-and tree-growing mushroom species: A case study of urban vs. rural environments and dietary implications. Science of The Total Environment, 151162.
Because wild-growing edible mushroom species are frequently consumed, a knowledge of their mineral composition is essential. The content of elements in mushrooms and their possible beneficial or harmful effect may be influenced by the human-impacted environment. Thus, the aim of the study was to analyse the mineral composition of the soil, trees, and especially soil- and tree-growing mushroom species collected from within a city and from rural areas. Due to potentially higher pollution in urban areas, we assumed that mushrooms from a city environment will contain higher levels of mineral elements than those from rural areas and that the high content will be attributed to greater contamination of city soils. Significantly higher concentrations of several elements in soils (Ca, Ba, Bi, Hg, Pb, Sb, Sr, W and Zr) and trees (Ag, Bi, Ce, Co, Mn, Mo, Nd, Pr, Ta, Tm and W) were observed from the samples collected in the city. Additionally, significantly higher contents of Ag, Fe, Hg, Mn, Mo, Sr, Y and Zn in soil-growing, and Al, As, Ba, Cr, Fe, Hg, Ni, Pb, Sr, Ta and Zn in tree-growing mushroom species were recorded from the urban area. These differences formed the basis for the observation that the content of elements in urban mushrooms is generally higher than in those from rural areas. However, a higher content of several soil elements does not necessarily mean that there will be a significantly higher content in fruit bodies. There was also no real risk of consuming soil-growing mushroom species collected in recent years from the city, suggesting that this practice may still be continued.
Keywords: Basidiomycetes, food composition, major elements, trace elements, traffic pollution, tree species